Tables should be used to:

  • allow comparison of individual data values
  • present a very precise level of detail
  • show multiple units of measure (for example, measurements and percentages)
  • present only a small number of data values
  • show values and their sums

Types of table


Use a dataset (or reference table) to make statistics available for future reference. These typically have a large number of entries covering a variety of different statistics broken down into different categories. They are supplied alongside the main commentary in an accompanying spreadsheet or dataset.

Presentation table

Create a presentation table to demonstrate a point that is being made in the text. These use data extracted from datasets, laid out so as to quickly reinforce the point. The design should ensure that patterns and exceptions are obvious at a glance.

Presentation tables are created using table builder in Florence. We recommend no more than nine columns as there are some restrictions on how the tables are formatted.

Data order in tables

Group the data into meaningful subsets and make it clear in what order it should be read. Hierarchy and grouping can be shown by using white space and indenting column headings.

A table grouping together data for sub-regions of the UK underneath headings for England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland.

A table is made up of classification variables and data values, either of these can be used to order your table depending on the context.

If the table is not ranked by data value and the classification variables have a natural order, like age or geography, keep this order in the table.

Additional guidance is available on the recommended standard presentation order of statistics.

Put the variables that are most likely to be compared in columns, with the units, tens or hundreds beneath one another.

Where data are most likely to be compared between years

Example of how to label a table with years written down the left-hand column and ages across the rows towards the right-hand side.

Where data are most likely to be compared between ages

Example of how to label a table with ages written down the left-hand column and years across the rows towards the right-hand side.

Time should run from left to right or top to bottom.

Hierarchy and grouping

Show hierarchy and grouping using white space and by indenting column headings.

Registered deaths by sex
England and Wales, 2013 number of deaths
All persons Males Females
England and Wales 505,690 244,934 260,756
England 473,552 229,291 244,261
North East 26,465 12,589 13,876
North West 69,045 33,385 35,660
Yorkshire and The Humber 50,342 24,237 26,105
East Midlands 42,277 20,739 21,538
West Midlands 52,260 25,742 26,518
East 53,269 25,694 27,575
London 47,580 23,609 23,971
South East 77,778 37,213 40,565
South West 54,536 26,083 28,453
Wales 32,138 15,643 16,495

Column spacing

It is easier to read columns of numbers if they are tightly spaced. Columns should use equal spacing, unless there is a specific reason for altering it. Split column headings over lines to save using wide columns, but choose a sensible place to put the line break.


The font type and size should match the font used in your publication. The font should be mono-spaced, with the same width for each character or digit, so that all the units align.

Bold text in tables

Do not put numbers in bold as they will move from their correct alignment.

Number alignment

Always right-align headings and data in columns so that units, tens, hundreds and thousands are aligned and numbers of equal value are easily comparable.

Number rounding

Always use a consistent level of precision, but use the lowest level possible for the intended user.

For the “inquiring citizen”, that is, a broader, less statistical audience :


For the “information forager”, for example, a local politician making decisions about future council tax charges:


For the “expert analyst”, for example, in a statistical journal discussing the detailed methodology behind the estimation, or in a situation where reproducibility is important:


Effective rounding

Effective rounding can be used to communicate and present numbers so that they can be understood quickly and easily. Remove any unimportant or irrelevant information, but keep the detail in the data.

Look at whether there is a difference between the first numbers, second numbers, third numbers and so on. You should round the numbers for comparison to two effective digits.

Example of how to effectively round numbers in a table, showing that £25,289.37 could be rounded to £25,300 and £28,306.24 could be £28,300.

When using effective rounding you may need an extra level of rounding when a value is small enough that the detail is removed when using two effective digits. If the value is not important it could be removed from the table. If it is important the level of effective rounding should be adjusted to an appropriate level.

Three levels of effective rounding

21.9 million
17.3 million
11.2 million
0.4 million

Not (no effective rounding)


Not (two levels of effective rounding)

21 million
17 million
11 million
0 million


Totals can go at the top or the bottom of a table, depending on their relevance and importance.

If your data are hierarchical, positioning the totals at the top can help emphasise that the total is broken down.


Use the same measure across all variables where possible.

Make it clear if different measures, for example, measurements and percentages, are being used in the same table.

Shading, gridlines and other lines

Use lines and shading sparingly. Use subtle colours or greyscale. Make sure the shading does not distract from the data.

Shading can be used to track data across rows but also to highlight specific values.


Put the units as a header in the top right corner of the chart. Use subheadings if the units change within a chart.

Titles and subtitles

Titles should be clear, concise and explain clearly what the table is about and what it measures. This description is known as the statistical measure and is followed by the geography and time period.

Table 3: Percentage of children in workless households, UK, 2013 and 2018

Include a descriptive main title if the table has a clear trend that lends itself to it. Follow the style for chart titles and write a title that is descriptive and tells the trend of the data or highlights the main story in no more than 10 words.

When using a descriptive main title, place the statistical measure, geography and time period in the subtitle.

Table 1: Services was the largest contributor to GDP growth at 0.24 percentage points
Three-month growth and contributions to GDP growth, UK, March to May 2019


Use letters to annotate numbers and numbers to annotate words or letters.


Position the explanation of the annotations underneath the table.

Annotations should be slightly smaller than the table font.

We are constantly improving based on research and best practice. Any significant changes to our guidance are available on the Updates page.


A source for each table must be provided in the following format:


We use words rather than punctuation or symbols to tell users which sources have provided data that are used in the visual. This is more accessible for all users. 

Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings from the Office for National Statistics
Pay As You Earn Real Time Information from HM Revenue and Customs
Local Land Charges Research from the Land Registry

More than one source

If the table is compiled using more than one source, then list them all by dividing them with commas. However, if the list becomes very long then just provide the three most important sources.

Labour Force Survey from the Office for National Statistics, Value Added Tax (VAT) returns from HM Revenue and Customs, and the School Census from the Department for Education

Multiple sources from the same organisation 

If you have multiple sources from the same organisation, you can include the organisation name only once. 

Value Added Tax (VAT) returns and Pay As You Earn Real Time Information from HM Revenue and Customs, and the Labour Force Survey from the Office for National Statistics

We are constantly improving based on research and best practice. Any significant changes to our guidance are available on the Updates page.