Using hyperlinks within your text is best practice for web writing and reference sections should be avoided. However, when a reference section is needed, use the following guidance.

When writing a reference:

    • don’t use italics
    • use single quote marks around titles
    • write out abbreviations in full: page not p, volume not Vol.
    • use plain English, for example, use “and others” not “et al”
    • use “to” instead of a hyphen for page ranges: page 221 to 224, not pp 221-224
    • don’t use full stops after initials or at the end of the reference

Bean C (2015), ‘Independent review of UK economic statistics: Interim report’, December 2015

Colangelo A, Inklaar R (2012), ‘Banking sector output measurement in the euro area – a modified approach’, Review of Income and Wealth, Volume 58, Issue 1, pages 142 to 165

If the reference is available online, make the title a link.

If you are providing a source for an image (a map, for example), you may need to give the full URL. Use the following format and make it a hyperlink: