Using capital letters

Capital letters should always be used for proper nouns, at the beginning of sentences and in acronyms. As capital letters are more difficult to read, do not use them in any other context.

Proper nouns

Use capital letters for proper nouns, which are names that refer to a specific thing.

1991 Census
World Health Organization
National Statistics
Ministry for Health
Population (Statistics) Act 1938
Inner London
Output Area
Small Area

Headings, titles and subtitles

All titles, subtitles, headings and subheadings should be written in sentence case. Only the following words should be capitalised:

  • the first word of the title or subtitle
  • the first word of the section heading or subheading
  • proper nouns, such as the names of countries, months, specific statistical time periods (for example, Quarter 1 (Jan to Mar) 2021), organisations, and specific surveys and indices
  • nouns when they are followed by numbers or letters, for example, Table 1, Figure A

Labour market overview, UK: March 2020
Child and infant mortality in England and Wales: 2019
UK House Price Index: December 2020
Figure 1: In 2018, renewable generation was 11 times greater than in 2003

Compass directions and regions

Compass directions and regions are always lower case.

the south-east (direction)
the north (region)
western counties(direction)


East End
West End (London)
Middle East
Central America, North America, South America


Use title case for publication titles.

Psychology Today

People and jobs

Job titles should be lower case, except when attributed to a person.

managing director
chief executive
prime minister
Sir Ian Diamond, National Statistician
Prime Minister Liz Truss

Capital letters are always used for The King.

Lower case

Begin the following words and phrases with a lower case letter:

the census information
member state, accession state
section (when referring to an Act)
spring, summer, autumn, winter
local authority, health authority, unitary authority, ward, clinical commissioning groups